The Participants

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The Participants

The Participants

  • Author : Hans-Christian Jasch,Christoph Kreutzmüller
  • ISBN :
  • Category : History
  • Publisher : Berghahn Books
  • Pages : 354
  • Release Date : 2017-10-01

On 20 January 1942, fifteen senior German government officials attended a short meeting in Berlin to discuss the deportation and murder of the Jews of Nazi-occupied Europe. Despite lasting less than two hours, the Wannsee Conference is today understood as a signal episode in the history of the Holocaust, exemplifying the labor division and bureaucratization that made the “Final Solution” possible. Yet while the conference itself has been exhaustively researched, many of its attendees remain relatively obscure. Combining accessible prose with scholarly rigor, The Participants presents fascinating profiles of the all-too-human men who implemented some of the most inhuman acts in history.

Gansbaai, a small coastal town in South Africa, is considered "the shark cage diving capital of the world", despite there being over 40 shark tourism destinations worldwide. However, Gansbaai has one outstanding feature which few other destinations have: great white sharks. Because of this, Gansbaai attracts visitors from all over the world who travel to the area with the expectation to witness this particular species, making it an international hotspot for shark tourists. However, in recent years, a decline in the great white shark population has been widely reported in the media. The decline of the shark population is not only a problem for South Africa, but globally. Today, 172 shark species are already on the IUCN Red List of Threatened Species. Yet, South Africa is one of the few places on earth where humans have the opportunity to interact with this species at close range. The outcry is great, as the impact on the South African shark industry has been profound. It seems that this has also had an impact on the satisfaction of the participants, as an ad-hoc analysis of online ratings shows. This is critical for the industry, as potential participants nowadays take their cue from the experiences of previous people.The main reason for this is the confusing plethora of tourism services available today. Therefore, the online review platform TripAdvisor has become a reliable source for travel decisions. Accordingly, analyses of online reviews have become particularly popular in the tourism and hospitality industry as it allows service providers to gain insight into what influences consumer satisfaction. This shows the importance for tour operators in Gansbaai's shark industry to understand what influences visitor satisfaction in order to adjust their concepts sustainably. Therefore, the aim of the study is to identify the factors which influence visitor satisfaction in the shark tourism industry in Gansbaai based on TripAdvisor reviews.

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This book presents a new analytical approach that will advance the establishment of a new discourse within the study of language and communication disorders. Instances of recurring aphasia and acquired brain injury are discussed in an empirical observation study through a theoretical lens that combines Integrational Linguistics, ethnomethodology, Conversation Analysis and practice theory. In doing so, this interdisciplinary analysis adds a person-centered perspective to existing ethnographic approaches. It addresses a significant gap in our understanding of the social/communicative/interactional consequences of brain injury for everyday life by focusing on the practical problems that individuals with communication difficulties and acquired brain damage - and their care-takers, family and friends - have to solve in everyday life, and how they solve them. This innovative work will appeal to health and social care practitioners and care-givers, in addition to scholars of health communication, cognitive, psycho- and sociolinguistics.

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Provides an analysis of the relationship between the UK and the EU, treating the key overarching issues in the 1975 referendum and looking ahead to the prospect (eventually) of further referendums on the subjects of EMU and a European constitution.

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Provides an analysis of the relationship between the UK and the EU, treating the key overarching issues in the 1975 referendum and looking ahead to the prospect (eventually) of further referendums on the subjects of EMU and a European constitution.

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Participation is everywhere today. It has been formalized, measured, standardized, scaled up, network-enabled, and sent around the world. Platforms, algorithms, and software offer to make participation easier, but new technologies have had the opposite effect. We find ourselves suspicious of how participation extracts our data or monetizes our emotions, and the more procedural participation becomes, the more it seems to recede from our grasp. In this book, Christopher M. Kelty traces four stories of participation across the twentieth century, showing how they are part of a much longer-term problem in relation to the individual and collective experience of representative democracy. Kelty argues that in the last century or so, the power of participation has dwindled; over time, it has been formatted in ways that cramp and dwarf it, even as the drive to participate has spread to nearly every kind of human endeavor, all around the world. The Participant is a historical ethnography of the concept of participation, investigating how the concept has evolved into the form it takes today. It is a book that asks, “Why do we participate?” And sometimes, “Why do we refuse?”

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This book explores different perspectives on the role, influence and importance of participants in education research. Drawing on a variety of philosophical, theoretical and methodological approaches, the book examines how researchers relate to and with their participants before, during, and after the collection and/or production of data; reimagining the rights of participants, the role/s of participants, the concept/s of "participant" itself.

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In 1946, approximately 40,000 U.S. military personnel participated in Operation CROSSROADS, an atmospheric nuclear test that took place at Bikini Atoll in the Marshall Islands. Congress passed a law directing the Veterans Administration to determine whether there were any long-term adverse health effects associated with exposure to ionizing radiation from the detonation of nuclear devices. This book contains the results of an extensive epidemiological study of the mortality of participants compared with a similar group of nonparticipants. Topics of discussion include a breakdown of the study rationale; an overview of other studies of veteran participants in nuclear tests; and descriptions of Operation CROSSROADS, data sources for the study, participant and comparison cohorts, exposure details, mortality ascertainment, and findings and conclusions.

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Praise for Jolts! "Only Thiagi and his co-author, Tracy, could have devised a list of 50 magical learning moments that are concise and certain to JOLT learners into new perspectives and profound insights. If you facilitate group learning or change management, you won't want to miss this one!" —Elaine Biech, author of Business of Consulting and Training for Dummies "Give your training sessions a jump start with Jolt activities in less than 5 minutes. These easy-to-use creative techniques help learners gain instant insights. Not just session starters, this collection is a valuable addition to any trainer's bookshelf." —Jean Barbazette, president, The Training Clinic, and author of The Art of Great TrainingDelivery and Managing the Training Function for Bottom-Line Results "As a Charter Member of BFT (Borrow from Thiagi) Club, I've been adapting Thiagi's training activities for decades. I have built college courses and training workshops around Thiagi and Tracy's jolts. Use the jolts from this book as a way to instantly and successfully engage your participants with your topic." —Steve Sugar, author of Games That Teach Jolt|jolt|: a powerful training tool that will help you engage your participants and focus attention on your learning event. Master trainer Sivasailam "Thiagi" Thiagarajan and co-author Tracy Tagliati introduce a brand-new set of powerful training activities specially designed to get participants to sit-up, listen, and learn—to jolt them into a new level of participation, activity, and change. The forty-seven games and activities in Jolts! are interactive and emotionally charged—carefully chosen for their ability to make participants think, and think differently. When you really need to give your participants a powerful wake-up call, startle them into re-examining their assumptions and habitual practices, or encourage self-reflection, problem solving, and fresh perspectives—zap them with Jolts!

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Bachelor Thesis from the year 2021 in the subject Tourism - Miscellaneous, grade: 1,3, University of Applied Sciences Heide, language: English, abstract: The aim of the study is to identify the factors which influence visitor satisfaction in the shark tourism industry in Gansbaai based on TripAdvisor reviews. In this regard, the methodology used in this study is a qualitative content analysis, which is conducted inductively. At the end of the study, the reader will thus be able to understand not only what determines a satisfactory shark experience, but also what limits it. Gansbaai, a small coastal town in South Africa, is considered "the shark cage diving capital of the world", despite there being over 40 shark tourism destinations worldwide. However, Gansbaai has one outstanding feature which few other destinations have: great white sharks. Because of this, Gansbaai attracts visitors from all over the world who travel to the area with the expectation to witness this particular species, making it an international hotspot for shark tourists. However, in recent years, a decline in the great white shark population has been widely reported in the media. The decline of the shark population is not only a problem for South Africa, but globally. Today, 172 shark species are already on the IUCN Red List of Threatened Species. Yet, South Africa is one of the few places on earth where humans have the opportunity to interact with this species at close range. The outcry is great, as the impact on the South African shark industry has been profound. It seems that this has also had an impact on the satisfaction of the participants, as an ad-hoc analysis of online ratings shows. This is critical for the industry, as potential participants nowadays take their cue from the experiences of previous people. The main reason for this is the confusing plethora of tourism services available today. Therefore, the online review platform TripAdvisor has become a reliable source for travel decisions. Accordingly, analyses of online re-views have become particularly popular in the tourism and hospitality industry as it allows service providers to gain insight into what influences consumer satisfaction. This shows the importance for tour operators in Gansbaai's shark industry to understand what influences visitor satisfaction in order to adjust their concepts sustainably.

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The SAGE Handbook of Marketing Ethics draws together an exhaustive overview of research into marketing’s many ethical conundrums, while also promoting more optimistic perspectives on the ways in which ethics underpins organizational practices. Marketing ethics has emerged in recent years as the key and collective concern within the ever-divergent fields of marketing and consumer research. This handbook brings together a rich and diverse body of scholarly research, with chapters on all major topics relevant to the field of marketing ethics, whilst also outlining future research directions. PART 1: Foundations of Marketing Ethics PART 2: Theoretical and Research Approaches to Marketing Ethics PART 3: Marketing Ethics and Social Issues PART 4: Issues in Consumer Ethics PART 5: Ethical Issues in Specific Sectors PART 6: Ethical Issues in the Marketing Mix PART 7: Concluding Comments and Reflections

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Running Behavioral Experiments With Human Participants: A Practical Guide, by Frank E. Ritter, Jong W. Kim, Jonathan H. Morgan, and Richard A. Carlson, provides a concrete, practical roadmap for the implementation of experiments and controlled observation using human participants. Ideal for those with little or no practical experience in research methodology, the text covers both conceptual and practical issues that are critical to implementing an experiment. The book is organized to follow a standard process in experiment-based research, covering such issues as potential ethical problems, risks to validity, experimental setup, running a study, and concluding a study.

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Data management technology is rapidly progressing, and with it comes the need for stricter rules that ensure the information being collected is handled appropriately. Ensuring Research Integrity and the Ethical Management of Data is an essential resource that examines the best approaches for providing quality research, as well as how to effectively manage that information in a reputable way. Featuring extensive research on relevant topics such as qualitative data collection, data sharing, data misinterpretation, and intellectual property, this scholarly publication is an ideal reference source for academicians, students, and researchers interested in current trends and techniques in ethical research and data management.

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Complete proceedings of the 13th European Conference on Research Methodology for Business and Management Studies ECRM 2013 PRINT version Published by Academic Conferences and Publishing International Limited.

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This acclaimed volume is the first to provide a comprehensive overview of Jerzy Grotowski's long and multi-faceted career. It is essential reading for anyone interested in Grotowski's life and work. Edited by the two leading experts on Grotowski, the sourcebook features: *essays from the key performance theorists who worked with Grotowski, including Eugenio Barba, Peter Brook, Jan Kott, Eric Bentley, Harold Clurman, and Charles Marowitz *writings which trace every phase of Grotowski's career from his 'theatre of production' to 'objective drama' and 'art as vehicle' *a wide-ranging collection of Grotowski's own writings, plus an interview with his closest collaborator and 'heir', Thomas Richards *an array of photographs documenting Grotowski and his followers in action *a historical-critical study of Grotowski by Richard Schechner.

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This edited volume offers useful resources for researchers conducting fieldwork in various global conflict contexts, bringing together a range of international voices to relay important methodological challenges and opportunities from their experiences. The book provides an extensive account of how people do conflict research in difficult contexts, critically evaluating what it means to do research in the field and what the role of the researcher is in that context. Among the topics discussed: Conceptualizing the interpreter in field interviews in post-conflict settings Data collection with indigenous people Challenges to implementation of social psychological interventions Researching children and young people’s identity and social attitudes Insider and outsider dynamics when doing research in difficult contexts Working with practitioners and local organizations Researching Peace, Conflict, and Power in the Field is a valuable guide for students and scholars interested in conflict research, social psychologists, and peace psychologists engaged in conflict-related fieldwork.

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This interdisciplinary and cross-national volume brings together theory and research by prominent scholars within the areas of distributive and procedural justice, not only featuring work within each area separately, as is commonly done, but also showing how combinations of the two justice orientations might operate to affect justice judgments and guide behaviour. Chapters cover various levels of analysis, from intra-personal to interpersonal to group and societal levels. The volume is divided into four sections: distributive justice, procedural justice, distributive and procedural justice, and methodological issues. Each section is subdivided into two parts, basic research and applied research re: current and important societal issues. Each chapter contains an overview of theoretical and empirical research on a particular topic. The volume is designed for use on courses in social psychology, psychology, sociology, political philosophy, and law.

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Research participants who have cognitive disabilities and differences may be considered a vulnerable population. At the same time, they should also be empowered to participate in research in order to foster the growth of knowledge and the improvement of practices. For research participants with cognitive disabilities or differences, participating in research that concerns them follows the Disability Rights Movement's call " and is a vital component of the principle of justice. However, cognitive disabilities and differences may pose challenges to ethical research, particularly with respect to the research ethics principle of autonomy, for a variety of reasons. Several alternative or modified strategies, for example when obtaining informed consent, have been used by researchers. This volume provides timely, multidisciplinary insights into the ethical aspects of research that includes participants with cognitive disability and differences. These include conditions such as intellectual disability, autism, mild cognitive impairment (MCI), and psychiatric diagnoses. The chapters in this volume describe situations where difficulties arise, explore strategies for empowerment and inclusion, drawing on both empirical and normative research to offer suggestions for research design, research ethics, and best practices that empower people with cognitive disabilities and differences to participate in research while respecting and managing potential coercion or undue influence. The book includes contributions from scholars in anthropology, sociology, ethics, child studies, health and rehabilitation sciences, philosophy, and law who address these issues in both clinical and social/behavioural research. The book will be valuable for anyone performing research involving these populations - from the fields of neuropsychology, neurology, psychiatry, and neuroscience.

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What is a 'we' a collective and how can we use such communal self-knowledge to help people? This book is about collectivity, participation, and subjectivity and about the social theories that may help us understand these matters. It also seeks to learn from the innovative practices and ideas of a community of social/youth workers in Copenhagen between 1987 and 2003, who developed a pedagogy through creating collectives and mobilizing young people as participants. The theoretical and practical traditions are combined in a unique methodology viewing research as a contentious modeling of prototypical practices. Through this dialogue, it develops an original trans-disciplinary critical theory and practice of collective subjectivity for which the ongoing construction and overcoming of common sense, or ideology, is central. It also points to ways of relating discourse with agency, and fertilizing insights from interactionism and ideology theories in a cultural-historical framework.

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Ever walked away from a training session frustrated, tired, and angry because large portions of the session were spent trying to deal with a participant who didn't want to participate and was keen to let you know how much he or she didn't want to participate? Have you ever felt like you lost your whole group, because a couple of people were chatting away, or because someone was monopolizing the conversation, or because someone was heckling you all day?Then this Infoline is for you. It provides a checklist to help you prepare for sessions so you can anticipate trouble and plan to deal with it, stop difficult behaviors before they even start, and understand how to adjust your reactions so as to not make the situation worse. You'll also learn about some common unpleasant behaviors as well as ways to think about and handle them effectively.

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This volume puts forth an original theoretical framework, the ludonarrative model, for studying video games which foregrounds the empirical study of the player experience. The book provides a comprehensive introduction to and description of the model, which draws on theoretical frameworks from multimodal discourse analysis, game studies, and social semiotics, and its development out of participant observation and qualitative interviews from the empirical study of a group of players. The volume then applies this approach to shed light on how players’ experiences in a game influence how they understand and make use of game components in order to progress its narrative. The book concludes with a frame by frame analysis of a popular game to demonstrate the model’s principles in action and its subsequent broader applicability to analyzing video game interaction and design. Offering a new way forward for video game research, this volume is key reading for students and scholars in multimodality, discourse analysis, game studies, interactive storytelling, and new media.

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The three-volume set LNCS 8009-8011 constitutes the refereed proceedings of the 7th International Conference on Universal Access in Human-Computer Interaction, UAHCI 2013, held as part of the 15th International Conference on Human-Computer Interaction, HCII 2013, held in Las Vegas, USA in July 2013, jointly with 12 other thematically similar conferences. The total of 1666 papers and 303 posters presented at the HCII 2013 conferences was carefully reviewed and selected from 5210 submissions. These papers address the latest research and development efforts and highlight the human aspects of design and use of computing systems. The papers accepted for presentation thoroughly cover the entire field of human-computer interaction, addressing major advances in knowledge and effective use of computers in a variety of application areas. The total of 230 contributions included in the UAHCI proceedings were carefully reviewed and selected for inclusion in this three-volume set. The 78 papers included in this volume are organized in the following topical sections: universal access to smart environments and ambient assisted living; universal access to learning and education; universal access to text, books, ebooks and digital libraries; health, well-being, rehabilitation and medical applications; access to mobile interaction.

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ecision making is one of the most important activities in both our profes D sional and our private lives today. The literature on the subject has grown considerably over the last fifty years and it now covers many different approaches to the subject. These approaches range from that of creating a mathematical model of the decision situation under consideration, as in operations research and other forms of mathematical decision analysis, to those that are based on human and organizational behavior. Recently, those working in the field have begun to combine approaches to the study of decision situations that arise in organizations, in our personal lives and in the communities in which we live. This book is an attempt to assist those concerned with decision making to work with this combination of approaches. In the past, decision problems have been considered according to the condi tions under which they arise and to some extent in terms of the approaches available for their resolution. Writers on the subject who are mathematically oriented have devised a method of classifying decisions based on the type of mathematics that they suggest be used in the resolution of the problems. This approach leads to the division of decision situations into the categories of cer tainty, uncertainty, risk and competition. Deterministic models available in oper ations research have then been offered as the means of treating decision situations in the category of certainty.

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The Web is a globalinformationspace consistingoflinked documents andlinked data. As the Web continues to grow and new technologies, modes of interaction, and applications are being developed, the task of the Semantic Web is to unlock the power of information available on the Web into a common semantic inf- mation space and to make it available for sharing and processing by automated tools as well as by people. Right now, the publication of large datasets on the Web, the opening of data access interfaces, and the encoding of the semantics of the data extend the current human-centric Web. Now, the Semantic Web c- munity is tackling the challenges of how to create and manage Semantic Web content, how to make Semantic Web applications robust and scalable, and how to organize and integrate information from di?erent sources for novel uses. To foster the exchange of ideas and collaboration, the International Semantic Web Conference brings together researchers and practitioners in relevant disciplines such as arti?cial intelligence, databases, social networks, distributed computing, Web engineering, information systems, natural language processing, soft c- puting, and human–computer interaction. This volume contains the main proceedings of ISWC 2008, which we are - cited to o?er to the growing community of researchers and practitioners of the Semantic Web. We got a tremendous response to our call for research papers from a truly international community of researchers and practitioners from 41 countries submitting 261 papers. Each paper receivedan averageof 3.

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In 1920 W.E.B. Du Bois cited the damnation of women as linked to the devaluation of motherhood. This dilemma, he argues, had a crushing blow on Black women as they were forced into slavery. Black womanhood, portrayed as hypersexual by nature, became an enduring stereotype which did not coincide with the dignity of mother and wife. This portrayal continues to reinforce negative stereotypes of Black women in the media today. This book highlights how Black women have been negatively portrayed in the media, focusing on the export nature of media and its ability to convey notions of Blackness to the public. It argues that media such as rap music videos, television dramas, reality television shows, and newscasts create and affect expectations of Black women. Exploring the role that racism, misogyny and media play in the representation of Black womanhood, it provides a foundation for challenging contemporary media’s portrayal of Black women.

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The Oxford Textbook of Clinical Research Ethics is the first comprehensive and systematic reference on clinical research ethics. Under the editorship of experts from the U.S. National Institutes of Health of the United States, the book's 73 chapters offer a wide-ranging and systematic examination of all aspects of research with human beings. Considering the historical triumphs of research as well as its tragedies, the textbook provides a framework for analyzing the ethical aspects of research studies with human beings. Through both conceptual analysis and systematic reviews of empirical data, the contributors examine issues ranging from scientific validity, fair subject selection, risk benefit ratio, independent review, and informed consent to focused consideration of international research ethics, conflicts of interests, and other aspects of responsible conduct of research. The editors of The Oxford Textbook of Clinical Research Ethics offer a work that critically assesses and advances scholarship in the field of human subjects research. Comprehensive in scope and depth, this book will be a crucial resource for researchers in the medical sciences, as well as teachers and students.

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Both an individual's personality and well-being are important throughout their lives. This book explores the current research on links between personality predictors of well-being and social adjustment using empirical studies to suggest that their influence can vary depending on the key developmental stage.

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This book provides a guide to qualitative research methods in the multidisciplinary field of physical culture. Developing an approach based on the '7 Ps' of research, this text navigates a pathway through the research process that will be invaluable as a teaching tool and to experienced and inexperienced researchers alike.

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This book explores the human geographies of skilled migration, specifically the practices, dispositions, relationships, and resources of professional women who participate in the global care industry.

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This is a study of the phonological development of a family of L2 English learners. It is the first full-length book that focuses on a tightly-knit group of learners' acquisition of phonology over a longitudinal timeframe, and the first book to study both social and linguistic factors across that time period. Jette G. Hansen analyses this data gathered from actual language learners in the light of recent theory, as well as challenging aspects of current thinking on the subject of second language acquisition. Acquiring a Non-Native Phonology therefore makes an important and original contribution to the field and provides an in-depth analysis and discussion of the developmental processes in acquiring a non-native sound system which has not previously been presented. The book is aimed at academics interested in second language acquisition, and researchers studying phonology in general.

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Biannually since 1994, the European Conference on Product and Process Modelling in the Building and Construction Industry has provided a review of research, given valuable future work outlooks, and provided a communication platform for future co-operative research and development at both European and global levels.This volume, of special interest t

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Integrating significant advances in motivation science that have occurred over the last two decades, this volume thoroughly examines the ways in which motivation interacts with social, developmental, and emotional processes, as well as personality more generally. The Handbook comprises 39 clearly written chapters from leaders in the field. Cutting-edge theory and research is presented on core psychological motives, such as the need for esteem, security, consistency, and achievement; motivational systems that arise to address these fundamental needs; the process and consequences of goal pursuit, including the role of individual differences and contextual moderators; and implications for personal well-being and interpersonal and intergroup relations.

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Video provides unprecedented opportunities for social science research, enabling fine-grained analysis of social organisation, culture and communication. Video in Qualitative Research provides practical guidance for students and academics on how to use video in qualitative research, how to address the problems and issues that arise in undertaking video-based field studies and how to subject video recordings to detailed scrutiny and analysis. Heath, Hindmarsh and Luff consider the ethical and practical issues that arise in recording and gathering data as well as how video enables new and distinctive ways of presenting insights, observations and findings to both academic and practitioner audiences. The book is illustrated throughout with a wide range of case material drawn from the authors own research projects, and these cases serve to situate the practical and methodological guidance offered by the book into real research scenarios. Video in Qualitative Research is an invaluable guide for students and researchers across the social sciences thinking of using video as part of their research. Christian Heath is Professor of Work and Organisation, Kings College London Jon Hindmarsh is Reader in Work Practice and Technology, Kings College London Paul Luff is Professor in Organisations and Technology, Kings College London

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The Journal of International Students (JIS), an academic, interdisciplinary, and peer-reviewed publication (Print ISSN 2162-3104 & Online ISSN 2166-3750), publishes scholarly peer reviewed articles on international students in tertiary education, secondary education, and other educational settings that make significant contributions to research, policy, and practice in the internationalization of higher education.

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Containing rigorous hard evidence, this book is of immense practical use to postgraduates, researchers and business communities affected by or working in environmental regulation. The author, a leading name in the environmental economics community, examines the problem of urban smog in cityscapes and the difficulty of achieving cost-effective controls. Analyzing the key areas of urban smog, low-level ozone and volatile organic compound emissions and their impact on health and welfare of communities this text assesses and evaluates the performance of emissions trading systems and suggests alternative market designs for incentive control of pollution. Taking a well-reasoned approach to the contentious area of the use of market incentives to achieve environmental goals, it provides a study of the pioneering cap-and-trade market, particularly focusing on its poor performance in Chicago. A perfect supplementary text postgraduates and researchers, this is also an essential read for all those interested in environmental economics.

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Organizational crises, in modern society, requires an immediate response. Chaotic stages occur during organizational changes resulting in emotional experiences for leaders who develop intense feelings of anger, shock, and frustration. Leaders who are not prepared will be overwhelmed by the need for an aggressive response to change. The ability to solve problems successfully will increase movement of the organization though the chaos stage. Building a foundation of preparation for a leader, prior to the organizational change stage, will decrease levels of dysfunction the organization may experience. It is time for a new approach to managing organizational chaos. The research in this book provides original contributions to leadership studies by applying general systems and chaos theory to leadership behaviors in times of crisis. Chaos theory offers different perspectives that will allow leaders to develop capacities for changing their existing approaches to chaotic events. Results from the research in this study are valuable to credit union leaders, and also all business leaders, who need new models that recognize external factors influencing the sustainability of the organization. This adaptability is one of the most effective leadership skills a leader can display (Higgs & Rowland, 2005). Introducing general systems and chaos theory into organizational leadership has become a new approach to leadership psychology and philosophy, promising to influence leadership and management theories (Bums, 2002). The significance of chaos theory for leadership studies lies in its heuristic power. If the challenges to normal events are observed through the lens of chaos theory, organizational leaders may make better-informed decisions in times of uncertainty.

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The refereed proceedings of the 4th International and Interdisciplinary Conference on Modeling and Using Context, CONTEXT 2003, held in Stanford, CA, USA in June 2003. The 31 full papers and 15 short papers presented were carefully reviewed, selected, and revised for inclusion in the book. The papers presented deal with the interdisciplinary topic of modeling and using context from various points of view, ranging through cognitive science, formal logic, artifical intelligence, computational intelligence, philosophical and psychological aspects, and information processing. Highly general philosophical and theoretical issues are complemented by specific applications in various fields.

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